A sealant may be viscous material that has little or no flow characteristics and which stay where they are applied; or they can be thin and runny so as to allow it to penetrate the substrate by means of capillary action. Anaerobic acrylic sealants (generally referred to as impregnants) are the most desirable, as they are required to cure in the absence of air, unlike surface sealants that require air as part of the cure mechanism that changes state to become solid, once applied, and is used to prevent the penetration of air, gas, noise, dust, fire, smoke, or liquid from one location through a barrier into another. Typically, sealants are used to close small openings that are difficult to shut with other materials, such as concrete, drywall, etc. Desirable properties of sealants include insolubility, corrosion resistance, and adhesion. Uses of sealants vary widely and sealants are used in many industries, for example, construction, automotive and aerospace industries.
Types of sealants fall between the higher-strength, adhesive-derived sealers and coatings at one end, and extremely low-strength putties, waxes, and caulks at the other. Putties and caulks serve only one function – i.e., to take up space and fill voids. Silicone is an example of a sealant - and has a proven long life and is unaffected by UV or extremes of weather or temperature.
See below for other common types of sealants -
Firestop barrier sealants
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